The direct cracking of crude oil is an interesting option for producing cheaply large amounts of petrochemicals this may be carried out with catalyst and equipment similar to that of catalytic cracking, but at a temperature range between that of standard catalytic cracking and steam cracking. Gas oil and residues, also from the primary distillation of oil very recently a cracking plant has come on stream in singapore in which crude oil itself is the feedstock, the first time that this has been done. Catalytic cracking of crude oil to light olefins and naphtha: experimental and kinetic modeling author links open overlay panel abdulhafiz usman a b m abdul bari siddiqui a abdelrahman hussain a b abdullah aitani a sulaiman al-khattaf a b.
Oil refineries use fluid catalytic cracking to correct the imbalance between the market demand for gasoline and the excess of heavy, high boiling range products resulting from the distillation of crude oil. Crude oil is a liquid fossil fuel that is very viscous and black in appearance (it also stinks to high heaven) it is a mixture of lots of different hydrocarbons, some of these hydrocarbon chains are very long, others are very short. Cracking is a process to convert large hydrocarbon molecules in crude oil into smaller molecules to produce products such as gasoline and heating oil.
Fluid catalytic cracking is a commonly used process, and a modern oil refinery will typically include a cat cracker, particularly at refineries in the us, due to the high demand for gasoline    the process was first used around 1942 and employs a powdered catalyst. The first major step (shown in another video) in refining crude oil is fractional distillation where they heat the crude and literally “boil off” the different hydrocarbon chains this causes the vert. Fluid catalytic cracking - a hot, fluid catalyst (1000 degrees fahrenheit / 538 degrees celsius) cracks heavy gas oil into diesel oils and gasoline hydrocracking - similar to fluid catalytic cracking, but uses a different catalyst, lower temperatures, higher pressure, and hydrogen gas.
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While the cracking processes break most of the gas oil into gasoline and jet fuel, they also break off some pieces that are lighter than gasoline since pascagoula refinery’s primary focus is on making transportation fuels, we recombine 14,800 barrels (622,000 gallons) each day of lighter components in two alkylation units.